[ODP] The Scandinavian WAIS IV Matrices as a Test of Dutton, te Nijenhuis and Rovaine
The Scandinavian WAIS IV Matrices as a Test of Dutton, te Nijenhuis and Rovainen's Theory of Finnish High Intelligence

Abstract

The Scandinavian (Sweden, Norway, Denmark) standardization of the WAIS IV on the matrices is presented in English for the first time. The score of Scandinavia on the WAIS IV matrices is shown to be higher than Finland. However, sampling differences would seem to explain why Scandinavia's WAIS IV matrices result is higher than Finland's yet its PISA score on a similar test to the matrices, based on significantly larger samples, is lower.

Key Words: Intelligence, WAIS IV matrices, PISA.

Fixed the title. Remember to indicate which journal it is submitted to. -Emil
The average OECD score was 500.
Britain's IQ should be used to give a Greenwich IQ. England's PISA CPS is 517. This is why your IQs for Scandinavia and Finland are inflated. Here, as you know, I converted PISA CPS into Greenwich IQ: https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/16vdyElN4nwnfk0J6IKXq6Zf6RMdqbUUXKxYKgkxTW9A/edit?usp=sharing
Setting the Greenwich IQ as the OCSE average gives unlikely results, for example a fluid IQ of 105 for Northern Italy and around 104 for Finland and 108 for Japan! 101 is a better estimate of the Finnish fluid IQ.
Formula used for converting PISA CPS to IQ should be specified. I used this Y=((X-517)/96)*15+100, where Y is country IQ and X is the PISA CPS score.
I do not know which SD you used. I used 96 because the SD for OCSE is 96. It's better to use the OCSE SD average than to use the SD for each country, otherwise countries with lower SD would get an overestimated score. I adopted this procedure in the paper I recently published in Intelligence (Piffer & Lynn, 2014).
Also the matrices and PISA CPS test fluid intelligence, not full scale IQ.
Also this statement should be amended accordingly: "With a raw score of 526 and an SD of 100 the Canadians have an IQ score of 103.9 on the matrices-like subtest". As you can see from my table above, Canadian fluid IQ is 101.4
The PISA data also reports scores for Finns living in Sweden (or Swedes living in Finland, I cannot remember) and this is a useful comparison, so should probably be included.
Ninja Edit: Also as the WAIS includes scores for native only, it's probably better to compare Scandinavian and Finnish Natives. In my table, column F, I converted native PISA CPS into IQ. These should be preferably used instead of those in column C, which report total (immigrants + native) IQ.
Edit 2: The Finnish seem to have higher PISA School than PISA CPS scores, and this is likely due to better schooling in Finland. Finn's fluid intelligence is not much higher than in Britain, only 0.4 point according to PISA CPS and 1 point according to WAIS. There is evidence that schooling has bigger impact on scholastic intelligence than on fluid intelligence, as expected: http://www.unz.com/isteve/none-dare-call-it-iq/
This fact should also be mentioned in the discussion.
The average OECD score was 500.
Britain's IQ should be used to give a Greenwich IQ. England's PISA CPS is 517. This is why your IQs for Scandinavia and Finland are inflated. Here, as you know, I converted PISA CPS into Greenwich IQ: https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/16vdyElN4nwnfk0J6IKXq6Zf6RMdqbUUXKxYKgkxTW9A/edit?usp=sharing
Setting the Greenwich IQ as the OCSE average gives unlikely results, for example a fluid IQ of 105 for Northern Italy and around 104 for Finland and 108 for Japan! 101 is a better estimate of the Finnish fluid IQ.
Formula used for converting PISA CPS to IQ should be specified. I used this Y=((X-517)/96)*15+100, where Y is country IQ and X is the PISA CPS score.
I do not know which SD you used. I used 96 because the SD for OCSE is 96. It's better to use the OCSE SD average than to use the SD for each country, otherwise countries with lower SD would get an overestimated score. I adopted this procedure in the paper I recently published in Intelligence (Piffer & Lynn, 2014).
Also the matrices and PISA CPS test fluid intelligence, not full scale IQ.
Also this statement should be amended accordingly: "With a raw score of 526 and an SD of 100 the Canadians have an IQ score of 103.9 on the matrices-like subtest". As you can see from my table above, Canadian fluid IQ is 101.4
The PISA data also reports scores for Finns living in Sweden (or Swedes living in Finland, I cannot remember) and this is a useful comparison, so should probably be included.
Ninja Edit: Also as the WAIS includes scores for native only, it's probably better to compare Scandinavian and Finnish Natives. In my table, column F, I converted native PISA CPS into IQ. These should be preferably used instead of those in column C, which report total (immigrants + native) IQ.
Edit 2: The Finnish seem to have higher PISA School than PISA CPS scores, and this is likely due to better schooling in Finland. Finn's fluid intelligence is not much higher than in Britain, only 0.4 point according to PISA CPS and 1 point according to WAIS. There is evidence that schooling has bigger impact on scholastic intelligence than on fluid intelligence, as expected: http://www.unz.com/isteve/none-dare-call-it-iq/
This fact should also be mentioned in the discussion.

Thank, Duxide. This is really helpful. I will send this to my colleague and submit a new version anon.
Matrix tests are highly g-loaded (or at least used to be), but they are not better measurements of g than is the combined results of multiple subtests. See: Johnson, W., Nijenhuis, J. T., & Bouchard Jr, T. J. (2008). Still just 1< i> g</i>: Consistent results from five test batteries. Intelligence, 36(1), 81-95.

You should use all of them if possible. The best method is to use an extracted g factor from all available subtests based on their loadings

Conscientiousness, in particular, is associated with performing well in tests and as PISA is a low-stakes test if Dutton et al are correct - and Finns are especially high in Conscientiousness for genetic reasons, due to adopting an extreme K-strategy - then this could partly explain superior Finnish performance.

Higher Finnish C probably explains why their PISA Math, Reading and Science is exceptional, close to East Asian countries, whereas their PISA CPS is only 0.5-1 IQ pts. higher than UK. This discrepancy should be observed. You can explain the relatively lower fluid intelligence of Finns by their higher K/conscientiousness but also by better schooling which favorably impacts crystallized intelligence (in particular scholastic skills such as those measured by PISA M,R,S) but not fluid intelligence (see link http://www.unz.com/isteve/none-dare-call-it-iq/ Emil and I are also working on a paper with preliminary evidence for this).
The paper should be focused on fluid g. This would avoid the criticism leveled by Emil ("Matrix tests are highly g-loaded (or at least used to be), but they are not better measurements of g than is the combined results of multiple subtests"). However, PISA CPS and Matrix reasoning are an adequate measure of fluid g and I think it'd be better if this paper discussed fluid g, and made it clear they're not measuring full scale IQ or even g.
1) Roivainen's name is misspelled Rovainen in the title.

2) "PISA score correlates with IQ score at 0.82 (Rindermann, 2008)"

It should be specified that the correlation is at the level of national mean scores, not individual scores.

3) "Despite this, Sweden (5.4%), Denmark (6.18%), and Norway (6.11%) could not reach this standard and excluded over 5%, because so many of its school children had been born abroad and had lived in the country for less than a year. Finland was able to reach this standard."

"its school children" should be "their school children" or "the school children of these countries"

4) The PISA data allows for the exclusion of first- and second-generation immigrants. Why didn't the authors reanalyze the PISA data so as to test if differences in the levels of immigration explain the differences between the WAIS and PISA? This analysis could probably be easily done using the International Data Explorer: http://nces.ed.gov/surveys/pisa/
The paper has now been updated and is ready to be re-reviewed at the link in the post above.
The paper has now been updated and is ready to be re-reviewed at the link in the post above.

The version you are talking about, is it the one posted by Email at "10-13-2014, 01:25 AM" ?

I will have to look more closely at the analysis itself, but regarding this :

However, as the education systems are relatively similar (see Kananen, 2014) it is unclear how this might be the case. Even granting that the Finnish educational system is better, this may itself be caused by a higher genotypic g instead of being a cause of it (see Lynn & Vanhanen, 2012).

I probably have to disagree. If it's due to higher IQ, I expect finnish people to have a substantial cognitive advantage over countries such as Norway and Sweden, but that's not the case. The IQ advantage of Finland is just about 2-3 points. Also, I don't think it's the mean IQ that matters when it comes to educational system. It's more related with politics and the elites' decisions, and by the same token, the smartest portion of the IQ distribution.
There is a great deal of evidence (e.g. from Lynn and Vanhanen) that national IQ is a very strong predictor of national differences in educational attainment and so this would be our argument. Indeed, the difference between Britain and Japan is only about 3-4 points. I'd be happy to include the possibility you suggest. Is there a meta-analysis of the kind conducted by Lynn and Vanhanen showing that 'politics and the elite's decisions' has a stronger impact on national differences in cognitive test performance than national IQ: i.e. stronger than about 0.7-8? If so, what is it?
A note on terminology. LV's books summarize other studies and report findings, but generally do not meta-analyze studies. I don't know if V has published meta-analyses before, but Lynn has done a number (e.g. sex diffs in RPM).

Sure. But the point is that the reviewers is suggesting that a difference of 3 or so points is not down to differences in genetics but policeman or education system. But the diffence between uk and japan is around 3 points and educatinal attainment is strongly underpinned by national iq differences, so I think our argument is reasonable. However, I am happy to mention an alternative possibility if the data is sufficiently persuasive.
I did not say that politics have an impact on IQ. I said that politics have an impact on educational system.
You're quite right. But the same study we cited found that IQ has a significant influence on political orientation. That is why I would suggest that sociological arguments can ultimately be reduced to psychology.
I'm extremely busy with my own work (because it's statistically complex) so given my priorities, my answers are not as fast as I would like to.

I don't think I have lot to comment, above what I said before. Two points, however :

...we have estimated them using the reverse engineering method described in Beaujean and Sheng (2014). This involves finding the raw scores equivalent to one standard deviation above and below the mean, calculating how many raw score points each score was from the mean and squaring it to get two estimates of the variance, averaging the two variances and then taking the square root of the average to get an average standard deviation.

In general, people use the geometric mean, rather than the arithmetic mean. I do not know which one is better. But I remember when I tried it the other day in excel. When the SDs are very different, the two methods produce dissimilar results. When SDs are similar, using either method has no effect on your result.

We used 96 as the SD of CPS scores as done by Piffer and Lynn (2014). 96 is the OCSE average SD. It is better than using country SDs because using individual countries SDs inflates the IQ score of countries with lower SD.

I would like the last sentence to be more elaborated.
Some grammatical errors:
"Although Finland has a higher fluid g than Scandinavia but its CPS native score is only slightly higher than the rest of north­western Europe, at 526 points, giving a Greenwich fluid g estimate of 101.4."
"This is possible, however a meta­analysis..." This should read, "possible; however, a meta-analysis...".
"the presence of significant Northeast Asian admixture in the Finnish population" Citation, please.

I prefer the term "fluid intelligence" (or, even better "fluid skills") to "fluid g". This is quibbling, however. (Also, g should be italicized.)
It should be made clear that Finland has a much bigger advantage in PISA M,R,S performance than in fluid g and this suggests that variables associated with educational attainment such as better schooling/higher C may be contributing factors.